# Timing: Part 2 - The Birth Of Video Recording

The peculiarities of the motion of planet Earth are responsible for much more than seasons and the midnight sun and it took a while before it was all figured out.

Fig.1 - The equation of time has two Fourier components. The first a) has a period of one year and is due to the non-circular orbit. The second b) has a period of six months and is due to the inclination of the polar axis. The sum of a) and b) is c).

Fig.2 - Seen from the sun, the Earth’s axis appears square to the ecliptic at the solstices, but leans over 23 degrees at the equinoxes. The component of the Earth's rotation in the ecliptic is reduced at the equinoxes so the sun’s apparent speed with respect to lines of longitude is reduced.

Fig.3 - On the left, the quadrant of the earth from equator to pole was defined as ten million meters. The intention was to divide it into 100 grads, each of which was one hundred centigrads, corresponding to a distance of 1km. The idea wasn’t popular and instead the quadrant on the right was divided into 90 degrees, each of which contained 60 seconds of arc. One arc-second corresponds to a nautical mile, which became the standard navigational unit.

# Timing: Part 3 - Early Synchronization

Synchronizing became extremely important with the growth of AC power systems, which ended up being used to synchronize all sorts of equipment, from Radar to television.

# Practical SDI And IP - Part 2

In this second instalment of our extended article looking into the practical applications of SDI and IP we look at how SDI is naturally plug-and-play and works with well-defined formats whereas IP is dynamic and more versatile but requires greater…

# Production Crews Adapt To New Safety Protocols (And Less Staff)

If there’s one thing the production community has learned during the pandemic, it’s that ensuring the safety of the crew on site or in the studio should always be first and foremost in people’s minds. The second takea…

# With Easing Restrictions, Tech Companies Hoping For Quick Recovery

Over the past year, as broadcasters and production companies have expended great effort to reconfigure their workflows and develop new ways of working amid strict safety protocols, so too have the manufacturers of the technology and systems they rely on.

# Practical SDI And IP - Part 1

SDI has been and continues to be a mature and stable standard for the distribution of video, audio and metadata in broadcast facilities. From its inception in 1989 to the modern quad-link 12G-SDI available today, it has stood the test of…